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Everyone has a favorite breed of cat. For some it is a the mixed breed cat; a gray tabby, orange striped cat, or a calico. For others, they want a purebred cat. Some care about papers, others don't. Some want the cat to match their house decor. Then, of course, when the decor changes so must the cat. I am not fond of this type of thinking. To me a cat is a friend until someone dies. They provide companionship when you are ill, comfort when you are depressed, and playful enthusiasm when you are bored.
There are cat breeds and then different fur color patterns. A cat breed is like Siamese, Himalayan, Ragdoll, Persian. The American Cat Fanciers Association has a list of cat breeds with standards and color descriptions, list of breeders, etc. It has been around since the mid-fifties and has a ton of information. Here's the link to the ACFA.
Fur color patterns are the defined colors. These span the different breeds and there are usually new patterns emerging in most breeds.
There is a lot of interesting caches of information about cats. Some magazines and websites of interest are catchannel, wikipedia (this one has the country where the breed originated), catster, and the I Love Cats Magazine.